MEDICAL RESEARCH REFERENCES
MEDICAL RESEARCH REFERENCES
1. Ozone Therapy: A Clinical Review
Description of “Ozone Therapy” with regards to its history, uses, and clinical trials performed. Ozone Therapy has been used to kill different kinds of pathogens for more than a century. It was also used for filtration during the SARS outbreak.
“With viruses, O3 damages the viral capsid and upsets the reproductive cycle by disrupting the virus-to-cell contact with peroxidation. The weak enzyme coatings on cells which make them vulnerable to invasion by viruses make them susceptible to oxidation and elimination from the body, which then replaces them with healthy cells.”
2. An Explanation Of Ozone And Its Uses
Overview of the properties of ozone, how it can be used, and what effects it has on viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. Some uses include Air Conditioning, fighting bacteria and viruses, decontamination of rooms/surfaces, etc. The article goes into fine detail about the effects that O3 has on all kinds of pathogens.
“Exposure to ozone reduces influenza disease severity and alters distribution of influenza viral antigens in murine lungs…. Mice were exposed to ozone or filtered air, or both, with aerosolized infection by influenza virus. It was found that animals exposed to ozone during infection showed a reduced severity of disease measured by decreased mortality and delayed time of death.”
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REFERENCES
1. Ozone Disinfection of SARS-Contaminated Areas
Article referring to the effects that Ozone had on the SARS outbreak, as well as the experimental data found while disinfecting the air within a testing room. The experiment was conducted within a conference room with an area of around 12m2 with no humans, plants, or animals inside. The overall results showed that ozone is very effective in reducing the amount of bacteria within the testing room.
“At higher ozone level[s], the sanitizing effect increased. Over 90% of airborne bacteria could be reduced at 2.5 ppm concentration. Further increase of ozone concentration to 5 ppm does not [benefit the] bacteria reduction percentage.”
2. Ozone Effect on Pathogens
This brief article depicts the specific effect that ozone has on particular pathogens and displays them into an easy-to-read table. It goes on to say that, unlike bacteria, viruses multiply only within the host cell. They will ultimately transform the protein of the host cell, making it into their own.
“At higher concentrations, ozone destroys the capsid, or exterior protein shell, by oxidation, so the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid) structure of the microorganism are affected).”
3. Development Of A Practical Method For Using Ozone Gas As A Virus Decontaminating Agent
An experiment was conducted to test air filtration, using O3, on different types of pathogens. The experiment was done using a “molded polycarbonate box with a transparent plastic front window” that could be opened for easy access for samples with a small ozone generator placed inside the test chamber. The ozone, in this case, is an independent variable that can be controlled by using a dial to dictate the dosage of ozone being released into the chamber. The types of viruses used included influenza, rhinovirus types 1A and 14, poliovirus, and yellow fever virus.
“Several viruses, representing different virus families and structural features, were then treated with a single mobile ozone generator in the laboratory chamber, as described in Materials and Methods. All viruses tested, HSV, influenza, MCV, FCV, and RV, representing DNA and RNA viruses with and without membranes, showed similar kinetics of virus inactivation on three hard surfaces, plastic, glass and stainless steel. The T ½ values ranged from 5-8 hours, but there were no consistent differences between the viruses or the surfaces. Examples for HSV (DNA virus with membrane), influenza (RNA virus with membrane), and RV (RNA virus without membrane) are shown in Fig.2. Rhinovirus (Fig 2c) was slightly more resistant than the other two viruses. Nevertheless these results suggest that all or most viruses should be susceptible to ozone gas.”